Syria

   Region between the Mediterranean and Mesopotamia (qq.v.). To the north is the Taurus (q.v.) mountain range, to the south Palestine (q.v.). Moving east beyond the Hellenized densely settled coastal plain of Syria the geography changes to fertile farmland, then to a desert that continues to the Euphrates River (q.v.), Syria's eastern border. Among its cities Antioch (q.v.) overshadowed the rest in size and sophistication. Other cities, e.g. Apamea, Berroia, Damascus, and Edessa (qq.v.) were considerably smaller by comparison. The region apparently continued to prosper, despite religious instability (notably Nestorianism and Monophysitism [qq.v.]), plague, and damaging Persian raids, both beginning in the 540s, and then by the Arab conquest of the region that followed the battle of the Yarmuk River (q.v.) in 636. Even after the Arab conquest, Syria's large Christian population looked to Byzantium (q.v.), whose armies reconquered the region beginning in 969. Nevertheless, Syria fell to the Seljuks (q.v.) in 1084. Thereafter, Byzantium attempted to retain a presence in Syria by its claim to overlordship of Crusader-dominated Antioch (q.v.). This claim was realized in 1108, but it was shattered after Manuel I's defeat at Myriokephalon (qq.v.) in 1176.

Historical Dictionary of Byzantium . .

Look at other dictionaries:

  • Syria — • A country in Western Asia, which in modern times comprises all that region bounded on the north by the highlands of the Taurus, on the south by Egypt, on the east by Mesopotamia and the Arabia Desert, and on the west by the Mediterranean… …   Catholic encyclopedia

  • SYRIA — SYRIA, state in southwest Asia. Although constantly subject to changes, the country s boundaries were primarily: Ereẓ Israel to the south, Asia Minor (Turkey) to the north, Mesopotamia to the east, and the Mediterranean to the west. Biblical and… …   Encyclopedia of Judaism

  • Syria —    Syria is one of the four Middle Eastern states containing parts of historical Kurdistan. More than a million Kurds live in Syria, many of them descended from grandparents who crossed the frontier to escape Turkish repression after the failure… …   Historical Dictionary of the Kurds

  • Syria —    Syria is Israel s neighbor to the northeast and has been a major antagonist since the Jewish state achieved its independence. The two countries have fought in the War of Independence (1948 49); the Six Day War (1967), during which Israel… …   Historical Dictionary of Israel

  • SYRIA — provincia maxima Asiae, inter Ciliciam et mare Syrium ad occasum et Mesopotamiam ad ortum, Euphrate fluv. hanc disterminante, illam monte Amanô: cui Armenia minor incumbit ad Arctos, ad meridiem vero Arabia deserta, et Palaestina; (quae apud Ptol …   Hofmann J. Lexicon universale

  • Syria — puede referirse a: La República Árabe Siria, por una de las transliteraciones del nombre. La cantante italiana Syria, conocida por la canción “Non ci sto”. La provincia romana de Syria. Uno de los reinos caballerescos del mundo ficticio de… …   Wikipedia Español

  • Syria — from L. Syria, from Gk. Syria, from Syrioi the Syrians, a name originally given to the Assyrians (Herodotus vii.63), an aphetic form of Assyrioi (see ASSYRIA (Cf. Assyria)) …   Etymology dictionary

  • Syria — puede referirse a: ● La República Árabe Siria, por una de las transliteraciones del nombre. ● La cantante italiana Syria, conocida por la canción “Non ci sto” …   Enciclopedia Universal

  • Syria — – Archéologie, art et histoire, anciennement Revue d’art oriental et d’archéologie, est une revue pluridisciplinaire et plurilingue consacrée au Proche Orient sémitique, publiée par l’Institut français du Proche Orient. La revue a paru depuis… …   Wikipédia en Français

  • Syria — [sir′ē ə] 1. region of ancient times at the E end of the Mediterranean 2. country in the NW part of this region, south of Turkey: formerly a French mandate, it became an independent republic (1944 58); united with Egypt to form the UNITED ARAB… …   English World dictionary

  • Syria — This article is about the modern state of Syria. For other uses, see Syria (disambiguation). Syrian Arab Republic الجمهورية العربية السورية Al Jumhūriyyah al ʿArabiyyah as Sūriyyah …   Wikipedia

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